Author: M. sc. Edvard Šefer, founder of Monku Jutsu, Martial art school of self-defense based on Kata forms. Senior PhD student on Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Science and Arts under mentor Prof. Dr. W. Cynarski.

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Key words: Safety, Karate, Kata, Self-defense, Qi Jiguang 32 verses.

Conference: University Lille France JORRESCAM 2020

Title: Safety in Martial art and Martial art-based sports.



Before twentieth century there was self-defense martial art Tang Shou that later evolved to sport martial art named Karate.

The aim of this study is to split between real life martial art meant for self-defense and martial sport fights and explain the different ways of ensuring training safety in both cases.

The main method was qualitative method based on collecting and analyzing Kata forms in the form of texts and graphic records of the twenty century, Bubishi book from end of nineteen century and general Qi Jiguang military manual Jixiao Xishu from 1561AD. Probabilistic sampling was done by attending seminars round the globe. On the collected data inductive labeling like Kata, self-defense, martial arts, philosophy, and history was used. Content analyses were done by focusing on repetitive patterns present in twentieth century documents and for ”ordinary” observer indirect and incomprehensible information from pre-twentieth century documents. Final conclusions were done by inductive method.

The study give explanation how to achieve safety of practitioners when training for real life self-defense and when training sport.

Safety in Martial art for real life self-defense training is achieved by training with moderate motion when trained in pairs and using full power and speed when performing Kata forms. In sport fights safety is achieved with judges, right to end the game whenever one fighter surrender and trough Agon = equality of fighters and Ludus = pointless difficulty created by rules that protect the fighters and prolong the fight to satisfy spectators need for violence.


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